Book 3 (Cyrus)

Chapter 3.1: Cyrus makes the Armenian king and his son Tigranes into better friends

1. The Armenian king is aggrieved to learn of Cyrus’ arrival…

2. The king sends his family and valuables to the mountains…

3. The king loses heart for a fight…

4. The king’s family and precious possessions are intercepted…

5. Cyrus assembles his army and issues the king an ultimatum…

6. The king decides to come down and be judged by Cyrus…

7. Tigranes arrives and weeps to see his family in distress…

8. Cyrus does not greet him in friendship but begins the trial…

9. Cyrus plays the role of prosecutor…

10. The king explains his motivations as a desire for liberty…

11. Cyrus has the king confess that as a master he himself punishes thieving servants…

12. The king further admits that he replaces any officers who do wrong…

13. As the family grieves, Cyrus asks the king to propose a punishment…

14. Tigranes asks to advise Cyrus…

15. Cyrus should not imitate the king’s practice of putting to death wrong-doers…

16. Wrong-doers should not be put to death if they have learned restraint…

17. Cyrus asks whether self-restraint is not learned, but a feeling…

18. Tigranes explains…

19. Tigranes explains that the king has learned restraint from Cyrus…

20. When people are defeated by those better than them they are willing to obey without necessity…

21. Cyrus objects that wrong-doers don’t seem to be able to recognize honest men…

22. Tigranes explains that transgressors recognize their betters once punished…

23. The king’s punishment has been to be reduced to abject fear…

24. Tigranes cites further examples…

25. He mentions the further fear that the king has for his family…

26. Cyrus expresses concern that with time the king would wax arrogant again…

27. Tigranes argues that it would be hard to replace the king with someone obedient…

28. Cyrus acknowledges that he would rather have friendship than compulsory obedience…

29. Tigranes argues that the king is now in a better position to be a friend than anyone else…

30. He and his father are in a better position to supply money and allies than anyone else…

31. Cyrus is delighted by Tigranes’ defense…

32. The king offers to give Cyrus all his money and his soldiers…

33. The king then details his resources…

34. Cyrus makes his demands of the king…

35. The king insists that Cyrus have whatever he wants…

36. Cyrus asks the king and Tigranes what they would give for their wives…

37. Cyrus returns the wives and invites them to dinner…

38. Cyrus asks about the philosopher who used to hunt with them…

39. The king explains that he acted out of envy…

40. Cyrus tells Tigranes to forgive his father…

41. As they drove home, they spoke about Cyrus’ wisdom, might, gentleness, beauty, and stature…

42. The king sends presents to Cyrus and double the money he had requested…

43. Tigranes insists on taking his wife with him…

Chapter 3.2: Cyrus Forges an Alliance between the Armenians and Chaldaeans

1. Cyrus surveys the Armenian territory…

2. A large part of the Armenian country was uncultivated because of the war…

3. On the following day Cyrus receives favorable omens and summons an assembly…

4. Cyrus proposes taking the Chaldaean summit…

5. Cyrus exhorts the army to battle…

6. Cyrus exhorts his men to take the summit…

7. Summary of the Chaldaeans…

8. Cyrus tells the Armenians to lure the Chaldaeans closer…

9. The Armenians do as told…

10. The trick works and the army takes the summit…

11. Cyrus proceeds to build a fort…

12. Cyrus has the Chaldaean prisoners released and their wounds tended to…

13. He bids them return home and decide whether they want war or peace…

14. The Chaldaeans are grateful; the Armenian king brings carpenters to build the fort…

15. The king remarks on how marvelously his fortunes have turned out…

16. The king expresses gratitude to Cyrus for clearing the summit…

17. The Chaldaeans return wanting peace…

18. He offers them the opportunity to till the Armenian lands in exchange for a tribute…

19. The Armenian king also agrees to this arrangement…

20. They agree to let the Armenians pasture their sheep in their mountains for a tribute…

21. Neither side is comfortable with the other possessing the summit…

22. Cyrus offers to set up a garrison himself at the summit…

23. Both sides agree…

24. The covenants between the two persist to Xenophon’s time…

25. Cyrus hosts both sides at dinner…

26. Cyrus invites some of the Chaldaeans into his army as mercenaries…

27. They agree and Cyrus begins to question them about the Indian king…

28. Cyrus asks them to appeal to the Indian king for money…

29. Cyrus instructs them in the message to deliver…

30. Cyrus explains their options if they do or do not receive the Indian king’s support…

31. The banquet comes to an end…

Chapter 3.3: Cyrus and the Army Engage in Their First Battle with the Assyrians

1. Cyrus sends the envoys to the Indian king…

2. Cyrus is greeted with gifts by all the citizens of Armenia…

3. Cyrus refuses money from the queen…

4. The people hail him as a benefactor…

5. Cyrus sends the money and army on to Cyaxares…

6. Cyrus uses some of his money to reward the captains…

7. He speaks to his officers on the pleasure of their prosperity…

8. He reminds them of what it took to reach this point…

9. Cyrus seeks an opportunity to lead his men against the enemy…

10. Cyrus also recognizes the need for battle before the soldiers grow envious of one another…

11. Cyrus thus assembles the army…

12. He instructs the officers to fill the men with a desire for immediate action…

13. On the following day they present themselves to Cyaxares…

14. He suggests that they go out an attack the enemy rather than wait for an invasion…

15. He says that it would be better for his army to injure the property of the enemy…

16. He points out that support for the army can be taken from enemy country…

17. Further, there is no greater safety to the army if they wait…

18. The army will have greater courage if they take the offensive and the enemy will feel greater fear…

19. This would be a great advantage to them, as battles are decided more by the souls of the men than the strength of their bodies…

20. Cyaxares is not bothered by hosting Cyrus’ army, but he agrees with the plan to attack the enemy…

21. Cyrus prays to Sovereign Zeus and the rest of the gods…

22. He asks for help from the heroes of Media, then later the gods and heroes of Assyria…

23. They set up camp and begin ravaging the country…

24. When the enemy is 10 days away, Cyrus exhorts Cyaxares that they should go out and meet them…

25. They advance and set up camp fires so as to protect themselves and deceive the enemy…

26. The Assyrian army draws near and digs a ditch around its camp…

27. They dig these ditches because their horses are hard to ready for battle at night…

28. The Assyrians camp in the open but Cyrus keeps cover behind hills and villages…

29. When the Assyrian king and Croesus allow their troops to rest Cyaxares summons all the officers…

30. He proposes that they march up to the enemy camp…

31. Cyrus objects because he fears that the enemy will feel secure inside its camp and see that they outnumber the Persian-Medan army…

32. Cyrus argues that it is better to let the enemy wonder how many they are…

33. Everyone agrees with Cyrus’ proposal…

34. Cyrus takes the auspices and pronounces that the army will be victorious…

35. He assures the army that they know what to do…

36. They must remind their new comrades what they must do…

37. They must remind them of what is at stake in the battle…

38. Cyrus explains that by inspiring valor in their comrades they will be building it up in themselves…

39. He encourages them to speak to the comrades themselves…

40. Cyrus instructs them to pour libations and then instructs the rear-guard…

41. Cyrus says that these are equal to the bravest men…

42. He tells them to heed the instructions of those in the front…

43. The Assyrians come out to battle and are exhorted by their king…

44. The king reminds his men of what is at stake if they lose the battle…

45. He reminds them that they will be safest and most prosperous if they are victorious…

46. Cyaxares proposes that they begin their attack before all the Assyrians are out of their fort…

47. Cyrus objects to this because he thinks it will give the enemy courage…

48. Cyrus learns from some deserters that the king is marshaling the Assyrians himself…

49. Chrysantas proposes that Cyrus exhort his own men to be better…

50. Cyrus says that no speech of the Assyrian men can make men good…

51. Chrysantas says that Cyrus can at least make the souls of his men better…

52. Cyrus argues that laws must already be in place to provide men with a life of freedom and honor…

53. Teachers and officers are also necessary, to ensure that the honor and virtue are instilled in the citizens…

54. Virtue, Cyrus says, would be most easy to teach if it could be accomplished by fine speeches…

55. Speeches are no better at instilling virtue than one song well sung in teaching people how to sing…

56. Cyrus then openly objects to Cyaxares’ command to engage the enemy, but he agrees to follow orders…

57. Cyrus prays to the gods and then marches the army out in perfect order…

58. They march out singing a paean led by Cyrus…

59. They march in good spirits, with the cheerful officers urging them on…

60. The Assyrians fail to withstand the charge…

61. Cyrus encourages each man to encourage another…

62. Cyrus himself shouts as he runs, inviting the men to follow…

63. The enemy flees to their entrenchments…

64. The Persians slay them from behind and even in the ditches…

65. The Medan cavalry then charges the Assyrian cavalry…

66. The enemy on the ramparts is cast into a fearful confusion…

67. The women also fly into a panic…

68. The kings themselves engage in the fight…

69. Cyrus gives the order to retreat from the gates…

70. In retreat the peers display perfect discipline, better than a chorus for keeping their position…

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