Book 2 (Cyrus)

Chapter 2.1: Cyrus Implements Cambyses’ Principles of Generalship in the Persian Army

1. Cambyses escorts Cyrus to the Persian-Medan border…

2.Cyrus embraces Cyaxares and reports to him on his force…

3. Cyrus explains that though the peers are few they are sufficient…

4. Cyrus begins questioning Cyaxares on the nature of the Assyrian invasion…

5. Cyaxares enumerates the forces of the Assyrians and their allies…

6. He then gives the Medan number and Cyrus compares them…

7. Cyrus asks about the fighting styles…

8. Cyaxares suggests that they send to Persia for more volunteers…

9. Cyrus proposes instead that they outfit the Persian commoners just like the peers…

10. Cyaxares agrees to this proposal…

11. Cyrus exhorts his peers to make the Persian commoners as valiant as possible…

12. The peers are delighted at the prospect of arming and inspiring the commoners…

13. One of the peers suggests that Cyrus encourage the commoners…

14. Cyrus brings the arms into view and addresses the soldiers…

15. Cyrus offers the commoners the opportunity to become equal to the peers…

16. Cyrus explains that now they will have armor as nice as the peers’ for fighting at close range…

17. Cyrus emphasizes that the commoners can differ now only in courage…

18. Cyrus offers the armor to the commoners…

19. The commoners take up arms, hopeful of making a better life for themselves…

20. Before the enemy arrives, Cyrus spends his time preparing his men…

21. Cyrus makes them focus only on hand-to-hand combat…

22. Cyrus sets up contests for the soldiers and officers…

23. Cyrus gives promotions to the officers who win contests…

24. Cyrus also gives out honors to whole groups of soldiers…

25. Cyrus has the men sheltered in tents together…

26. He also thought living together would better acquaint them with their positions…

27. This would prevent them from being thrown into confusion…

28. He also thought this would engender a feeling of camaraderie…

29. Cyrus makes toil a prerequisite for meals…

30. Cyrus has a tent big enough to host people for dinner…

31. Cyrus allows the suppliers a share equal to heralds and ambassadors…

Chapter 2.2: Cyrus Conducts Dinner Parties with a Blend of Seriousness and Charm

1. At dinner parties, Cyrus made sure the conversation was most charming…

2. Hystaspas tells a story about one ill-mannered man at meal time…

3. The man complains that the serving began at one end first and then at the other end…

4. The man is cheated a third time…

5. Another captain tells a story of a man who had trouble understanding orders…

6. He marches out ahead of his lieutenant when he is told to go forward…

7. The soldier explains how he had misunderstood…

8. The captain clarifies his orders to the soldier who is confused about whom to follow…

9. The young soldier follows the lieutenant when he has been sent to fetch a letter…

10. Cyrus sees both of these examples as positive…

11. Aglaitadas asserts that the officers have fabricated these two anecdotes…

12. Cyrus suggests the stories be seen as entertaining rather than deceptive…

13. The one captain acknowledges that if the stories had been tragic they would have been inappropriate…

14. Aglaitadas argues that humorous stories are less useful than sorrowful ones…

15. Hystaspas ventures to make Aglaitadas laugh…

16. When one captain says that it would be easier to get fire out of him, Aglaitadas smiles…

17. Chrysantas takes up another line of conversation…

18. Chrysantas objects to soldiers receiving equal rewards for differing degrees of valor…

19. Chrysantas argues that Cyrus should just make a decision himself…

20. Chrysantas doubts that the army would accept a just distribution of the spoils…

21. Cyrus thinks the question ought to be debated by the peers themselves…

22. One captain tells of a soldier who is always after the largest portion of anything except labor…

23. Cyrus asserts that such a man does not belong in the ranks…

24. He fears that such a man might get a following…

25. Cyrus draws a distinction between the lazy and the lazy who are also greedy…

26. Cyrus encourages his men to fill their ranks with anyone likely to benefit them…

27. Eliminating the vicious will have the effect of purging them and of encouraging others to remain virtuous…

28. Cyrus persuades his men and then turns to tease his friend Sambaulas…

29. The other diners laugh at the appearance of the man…

30. Sambaulas explains that the man is very prompt and loyal…

31. One man asks why Sambaulas does not kiss the man…

 

Chapter 2.3: Cyrus Convinces the Army to Accept Rewards from Battle According to Merit

1. On the following day, Cyrus calls an assembly of the soldiers…

2. He notes that the prizes of victory go to the victors…

3. He points out that the success of the army depends on each soldier…

4. Cyrus asks whether valor is encouraged by rewards proportional to effort and risk…

5. Chrysantas takes up the speech, claiming that Cyrus is testing them…

6. Chrysantas explains why, though he is not the strongest, he wants the strongest rewarded most…

7. Pheraulas, a commoner favored by Cyrus, speaks next…

8. Pheraulas supports the proposal as well…

9. He argues that all of them are naturally suited to do battle…

10. Pheraulas cites himself as an example…

11. The commoners, moreover, have less to risk and more to gain…

12. Pheraulas places confidence in Cyrus’ capacity to judge their merits…

13. The commoners have been trained by necessity to endure thirst and cold better than the peers…

14. They have also been required to carry more heavy and unwieldy things than the peers…

15. Pheraulas recommends that the rest of his commoners accept Cyrus’ proposal…

16. Members of both groups vote to accept the proposal…

17. Cyrus invites a captain and his whole company to dinner…

18. An account of such a battle is given…

19. Cyrus admires the officer’s cleverness and the men’s obedience…

20. Both sides report not liking the fight at short and long distances…

21. Cyrus rewards another company and its officer for their proper formation…

22. Another officer, invited to dinner, asks why his entire company is not included…

23. Cyrus agrees to give him and his company a double feast…

24. This reward inspires other companies to follow their example…

Chapter 2.4: Cyrus Hatches a Plan to Recover Tribute from the Armenians

1. During a review of the troops, Cyrus is summoned by Cyaxeres…

2. Cyrus tells the men to fall in line, which they promptly do…

3. He immediately leads them to Cyaxares’ quarters without stopping to rest…

4. Upon arrival he gives further orders for them to draw themselves up…

5. Cyaxares is pleased with Cyrus’ promptness but disappointed that he did not appear grandly…

6. Cyrus explains that his promptness and the strict order of his soldiers, as well as his own sweat and haste are better marks of honor than fancy clothing…

7. The Indian embassy explains that they are to determine which party has been injured and to side with that party…

8. Cyrus suggests that the Assyrians and Medes request that the king of India be arbitrator of their conflict…

9. Cyrus tells Cyaxares that he has spent all of his personal wealth on awarding his soldiers…

10. He explains that his method has been to make allies by speaking well and treating them well…

11. Cyrus asks that he and Cambyses lay plans for raising further money on the campaign…

12. Cyrus brings up the Armenian king who is refusing to pay tribute…

13. Cyaxares describes the Armenian king’s fortifications to an inquisitive Cyrus…

14. Cyaxares suggests that Cyrus make an attack, especially since some of the Armenians were age-mates of his when he was a boy…

15. Cyrus thinks that with some horses and the help of the gods he could make the Armenian king pay the tribute…

16. Cyrus will take a small band and pretend to engage in hunting along the Armenian border…

17. Cyaxares agrees to Cyrus’ clever plan and agrees to send reinforcements in time…

18. They make preparations and though many wish to join Cyrus, Cambyses only gives him a few…

19. Cyrus observes the favorable omen of an eagle picking up a hare…

20. Cyrus and his men engage in an actual hunt and take many animals…

21. After another day of hunting Cyaxares’ reinforcements arrive and Cyrus has them wait in hiding…

22. Cyrus assembles the officers and tells Chrysantas to go ahead to the mountain road and cut off the king’s retreat…

23. Cyrus tells them to dress like brigands and either capture or frighten the Armenians…

24. Cyrus spells out all the contingencies…

25. He likens the attack to a hunt…

26. Cyrus advises Chrysantas not to lose too much sleep in anticipation of the hunt…

27. He also advises him not to go into dangerous places but to follow the safest road for the army…

28. He advises him not to run too quickly…

29. He says that some of the strongest and most zealous should fall back and encourage the rest…

30. Chrysantas receives these instructions with joy and follows them…

31. Cyrus sends a message to the king telling him to pay the tribute and to know that Cyrus is at the frontier…

32. Cyrus instructs his men not to harm any Armenians…

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