Book 4 (Cyrus)

Chapter 4.1: Cyrus praises his army for its victory and makes plans for pursuing the Assyrians.

1. Cyrus withdraws and addresses his soldiers…
2. Cyrus gives thanks to the gods and encourages his men to do the same
3. Cyrus singles out Chrysantas for being an especially obedient soldier…
4. Cyrus further praises Chrysantas…
5. Cyrus encourages the men to remember the day’s victory…
6. He sends them to dinner…
7. Cyrus greets Cyaxares…
8. The Assyrian army is thoroughly dispirited and abandons camp…
9. Cyrus and his men find the abandoned camp…
10. Cyrus addresses his men after breakfast…
11. One of the soldiers proposes pursuit…
12. They decide to appeal to Cyaxares for horses…
13. Cyaxares is somewhat envious…
14. Cyaxares tries to persuade Cyrus to enjoy his success…
15. He worries that an unending pursuit of victory may cause them to lose their current one…
16. He worries further that the enemy may be inclined to fight to the death…
17. They will guard their women and children with the ferocity of some animals…
18. Cyaxares does not think the army will stand a chance…
19. Cyrus asks only for volunteers and explains that he will not engage the entire army…
20. Cyrus also says that Cyaxares owes him a favor…
21. Cyaxares relents…
22. Artabazus agrees to announce the expedition…
23. Cyrus asks Artabazus to convince him to get other followers…
24. Artabazus enthusiastically communicates the message to the Medes…

Chapter 4.2: Cyrus finds allies in the rebelling Hyrcanians who guide him in his successful attack on the Assyrians.

1. As Cyrus is preparing, Hyrcanian messengers arrive somewhat providentially…
2. They take the field with their families in tow…
3. The Hyrcanians decide to ask Cyrus’ help in their revolt…
4. They explain their plight to Cyrus…
5. Cyrus asks if they have a chance of overtaking the Assyrians…
6. The Hyrcanians encourage him to set out immediately…
7. The Hyrcanians promise to make good on their claim by bringing back Assyrian prisoners…
8. Cyrus agrees and promises to make them trusty friends…
9. Cyrus plans to go out with the Hyrcanians…
10. A long list of motives for following Cyrus is given…
11. Almost everyone joins Cyrus…
12. Cyrus prepares to set out by praising the Medes and praying to the gods…
13. Cyrus orders the Hyrcanians to lead the way…
14. The Hyrcanians lead the way, marveling at Cyrus’ strength of soul…
15. It is said that a light from heaven shines upon Cyrus and his army as they march…
16. The messengers report that they have come upon the Hyrcanian army…
17. One Hyrcanian messenger goes to the army…
18. Cyrus instructs his army to greet the Hyrcanians in friendship if they come as friends…
19. The Hyrcanians are delighted to hear from the envoys…
20. Cyrus pronounces his trust for the Hyrcanians…
21. Cyrus exhorts them to attack…
22. He exhorts them to proceed in a mass of shields and armor…
23. He instructs the Hyrcanians to spread out and hide the Persians from view…
24. He instructs the officers to march in close ranks…
25. He encourages them not to fall prey to plundering and thus lose their victory…
26. He says that in pursuit they must come back to him before dark…
27. He dismisses them to their ranks…
28. The enemy army is surprised by the attack and thrown into a panic…
29. Croesus had already sent his women ahead by night…
30. The Phrygian king did the same…
31. The king of the Cappadocians and king of the Arabians stand their ground…
32. The Medes and Hyrcanians carry on in victory…
33. They surrender their weapons and Cyrus has them burned…
34. Cyrus thinks to make food and drink available to the army…
35. Accordingly he orders the commissaries to come to him…
36. Then he orders those with a one month food supply to sit down…
37. He instructs them to prepare twice as much food for the victors as usual…
38. Cyrus advises against eating until the pursuers have returned…
39. He suggests that if they wait for their return it will be all the more pleasurable…
40. Cyrus thinks they should also continue to guard against and watch over the enemy…
41. He thus encourages them to take only enough food to stave off sleep and senselessness…
42. He also discourages them from taking an unfair share of the spoils…
43. He advises the Persians to let the Medes, Hyrcanians, and Tigranes take whatever they want…
44. The wealth of friendship, he says, will be more important…
45. He reminds them that that they are trained to practice just this sort of self-mastery…
46. Hystaspas supports Cyrus’ proposal…
47. Cyrus tells them to send out men to ensure that the provisions are being made…

Chapter 4.3: Cyrus proposes that the Persians develop a cavalry and they agree.

1. The Medes begin bringing in spoils…
2. To this day, Xenophon asserts, all Asiatics go to war with their most prized possessions…
3. Cyrus is vexed that the Medes and Hyrcanians are toiling more…
4. He addresses his men, explaining the need for them to have a cavalry…
5. He explains that they have no prospect of pursuing the enemy in flight…
6. Their allied horsemen have every reason to consider the spoils their own…
7. With a cavalry they would be able to do as much as their allies…
8. He asks them to consider what developing a cavalry would entail…
9. They already possess the necessary horses and equipment…
10. All that remains is for them to become the kind of men to manage horses…
11. Even though others learned as boys, they can, as men, learn even better…
12. They have more time to devote than boys…
13. Riding is more pleasant than other military training…
14. Even if they fail as horsemen in battle they may always resort to infantry fighting…
15. Chrysantas expresses eagerness to learn horsemanship…
16. In learning horsemanship he would expect to outrun all humans and animals…
17. He says it would make him like a Centaur…
18. He will have the advantage over a Centaur of being able to leave his horse…
19. It is hard, he imagines, for the Centaur to enjoy either the comforts of men or of the horse…
20. He will become like a detachable Centaur…
21. Chrysantas votes to become a horseman and the others join his enthusiasm…
22. Cyrus vows to give each man a horse…
23. They agree to go nowhere on foot…

Chapter 4.4: Cyrus makes terms with the captive inhabitants.

1. The Medan and Hyrcanian horsemen bring in their captured prisoners…
2. Cyrus asks for a report of their exploits….
3. He enjoys the report and praises them…
4. He asks about the extent of their travels and the nature of the country…
5. He says that they must become masters but also insure that the locals continue to cultivate the land…
6. He explains that those who surrendered should be released to work the land…
7. This would relieve them of having to guard them and supply them with food…
8. Others will be more likely to submit rather than fight…
9. Cyrus addresses the prisoners…
10. He offers to restore them to their wives and homes…
11. He offers them protection…
12. He offers to treat them as friends rather than slaves…
13. He instructs them to inform him of others who are not willing to accept his terms…

Chapter 4.5: Cyrus receives an angry summons from Cyaxares and invites his allies to divide up the spoils as they see fit.

1. Cyrus invites the Medes and Hyrcanians to the dinner that has been prepared for them…
2. He invites the Hyrcanians to go to their tents and dine wherever they like…
3. He assures them that the Persians will keep the night-watches…
4. The Medes and Tigranes change and go to dinner…
5. Cyrus sends the Persians out in night-watches…
6. He allows those who capture the men fleeing to keep the spoils…
7. While the Persians do this, the Medes engage in drinking and revelry…
8. Cyaxares on the same night gets drunk…
9. Cyaxares becomes enraged with Cyrus when he realizes how few of his men were left behind…
10. He chides Cyrus and the Medes for being senseless…
11. The messenger asks how he is to locate Cyrus…
12. Cyaxares becomes enraged to learn that Cyrus included the Hyrcanians in his army…
13. The messenger sets out with cavalry…
14. They are not admitted to the camp until daybreak…
15. He laments that the Persians do not have the means to protect their spoils…
16. He invites some of them to go to Persia for reinforcements…
17. He offers to provide for any soldiers who come from Persia…
18. Cyrus admits the Medan messengers…
19. The Medes are at a loss…
20. Cyrus reassures the messengers…
21. Cyrus defends his actions by saying that he got permission from Cyaxares…
22. He offers the Medan messengers a chance to rest…
23. Cyrus congratulates the Hyrcanian king…
24. Cyrus enlists him as a co-counselor…
25. He instructs the king to host the Medan messenger…
26. He then tells his Persian messenger to share the information about Cyaxares’ demand…
27. Cyrus says to Cyaxares in his message that he has not deserted him…
28. Friends protect their friends by pushing their enemies further away…
29. He questions Cyaxares for finding fault with him…
30. He says that he feels compelled to devote all of his gratitude toward his followers…
31. Cyrus says that he will not act toward Cyaxares as Cyaxares has acted toward him…
32. Cyrus advises him not to take back something he has given…
33. He vows to come to Cyaxares as soon as they have accomplished something beneficial…
34. He instructs the messenger to answer Cyaxares according to what is written…
35. He notices that the rest of the army is now drawn up…
36. He has the weapons burned and the horses maintained…
38. He points to the problem of undivided spoils and unsupervised captives…
39. He instructs them to divide the spoils…
40. He expects there will be more left over from the spoils…
41. He instructs them to take money from the Assyrian treasurers and pay out their cavalry and infantry…
42. He says that the merchants should be allowed to sell their wares…
43. The Medes and Hyrcanians despair of dividing up the spoils…
44. Cyrus argues that the men do not need overseers to work on each other’s behalf…
45. He assures them that the Persians trust them…
46. He asks for the horses to ride…
47. He proposes that they give the horses to worthier allies or to the Persians…
48. He confesses to feeling shame that they could not ride alongside the other cavalry…
49. He reminds them that they will be able to act as cavalry and as footmen…
50. They give the horses to Cyrus to use as he pleases…
51. He instructs them to set aside spoils for the gods and whatever would be acceptable to Cyaxares…
52. They laugh and say that women should be chosen…
53. He encourages the Medes to honor the envoy from Cyaxares…
54. Cyrus asks that the Persians, a modest people, receive only what is left…
55. They divide up the spoils and Cyrus has his captains take the horses away…
56. Cyrus orders a proclamation inviting any defectors from the Assyrian army…
57. Many come forward gladly…
58. They are taken to the captains to hold the armor while they ride on horses…

Chapter 4.6: The Assyrian Gobryas surrenders to Cyrus and asks for aid in avenging his son.

1. Gobryas the Assyrian appears with his cavalry and wishes to speak with Cyrus…
2. He asks that Cyrus avenge him and become his son…
3. Gobryas tells the story about how his son went on a hunting expedition with the son of the deceased Assyrian king and when both chased a bear Gobryas’ son brought him down…
4. When Gobryas’ son then brings down a lion the king’s son (the current Assyrian king) can no longer control his envy and spears him in the chest…
5. The king’s son showed no remorse or paid any honor (though his father did) to Gobryas’ son…
6. Gobryas explains that he could never be friends with the current king, nor the king with him…
7. Gobryas asks Cyrus’ help in avenging his son…
8. Cyrus agrees to help Gobryas achieve revenge…
9. Gobryas promises to let Cyrus use his castle as his own quarters and promises to pay tribute…
10. Cyrus gives his right hand before the gods as a pledge of his faith…
11. The Medes come in and award Cyrus the most splendid tent and a woman from Susa…
12. The Hyrcanians award themselves and share with the messenger from Cyaxares…

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