Book 5 (Cyrus)

**Chapter 5.1: Cyrus debates the powers of love with Araspas and assesses his allies’ willingness to continue with the pursuit of the Assyrians.

1. Cyrus orders Cyaxares’ most trusted men to divide his spoils and watch over them…
2. Cyrus summons the young Araspas to watch over his Susan woman…
3. She is the wife of Abradatas who was away in Bactria when she was taken in battle…
4. Araspas remarks on Pantheia’s beauty and relates how they found her among her maidens…
5. She is conspicuous for her stature, excellence, and grace…
6. They reassure her that she is being given to a man outstanding in form, judgment, and strength, but she weeps all the more…
7. Araspas remarks that once they saw her face, neck, and arms it seemed she was the most beautiful woman in Asia…
8. Cyrus declines out of fear that he would want to sit there gazing upon her…
9. Araspas argues that human beauty is not capable of compelling a person against his will…
10. People love different things and can be compelled to put away their feelings of love…
11. It is not the same with hunger, thirst, or the experience of hot and cold…
12. Cyrus questions how love can be a matter of free will when so many are slaves to it…
13. Araspas says that these people are weak knaves…
14. Gentlemen, he says, do not touch anything beyond what is right…
15. Araspas claims that despite having seen Pantheia he has not lost his sense of duty…
16. Cyrus suggests that Araspas has not yet been burned by love…
17. Araspas insists that this will not happen and Cyrus entrusts her care to him…
2 18. Araspas does in fact fall in love with her when he comes to know her goodness…
19. Cyrus, hoping the Medes and allies will remain with him voluntarily, calls them to a meeting…
20. Cyrus states his belief that they have joined him to do a favor for Cyrus himself…
21. Cyrus says that he is not yet in a position to repay them, but that he will try to do so…
22. Cyrus vows not to return to Cyxares but to remain truthful to the Hyrcanians…
23. He says also that he believes the gods are favoring him and does not want to offend them…
24. Artabazus says that Cyrus seems born to be a king…
25. Men, he says, seem to instinctively inclined to follow Cyrus…
26. He says that the Medes feel the same way now, and he vows to remain with Cyrus…
27. Tigranes then says he will not speak but simply follow where Cyrus commands…
28. The Hyrcanian king tells the Medes that they would be foolish to depart…
29. The Medes declare their willingness to return home only when Cyrus leads them back…
30. He then instructs the Persians to divide the tents among themselves and prepare for battle…

**Chapter 5.2: Cyrus visits Gobryas and hatches his plan with him to march to Babylon to ally themselves with the eunuch who had been wronged by the Assyrian king.

1. Cyrus sets out to visit Gobryas…
2. They arrive at the castle…
3. Gobryas invites Cyrus to enter…
4. Cyrus inspects the fort himself to see if it could be stormed in case Gobryas proves false…
5. As Cyrus is making his inspection, Gobryas comes out to him bringing provisions…
6. Cyrus enters the castle with caution…
7. Gobryas brings out all sorts of luxurious items and treasure for him…
8. Cyrus promises to do so…
9. Cyrus says that many men die before they are truly tested…
10. Cyrus is grateful to Gobryas for placing all of these things in his hands…
11. He vows to show gratitude for the confidence Gobryas has placed in him…
12. Cyrus vows to marry Gobryas’ daughter to a man worthy of her…
13. Cyrus invites Gobryas to travel with them so that he may see the many suitors for his daughter…
14. Cyrus and Gobryas exchange right hands…
15. Cyrus asks Gobryas who has more coverlets and couches…
16. When Gobryas dines with them he assumes that the simplicity of the food implies that his own people were more refined…
17. But he notes that the Persians are measured…
18. Gobryas notices also that they ask each other questions designed to please…
19. He marvels most at the fact that when on active service they do not expect a larger share…
20. Gobryas admits that the Persians are better…
21. Cyrus asks Gobryas to meet him in the morning with his men…
22. Cyrus does not think only about the march…
23. Cyrus calls a meeting with Gobryas and the Hyrcanian king…
24. He says that the Assyrian king does not hate him as a traitor…
25. Cyrus asks if the Assyrians have any other enemies…
26. They admit that two nations would be willing to oppose the Assyrians…
27. Cyrus asks Gobryas if the current Assyrian king has committed insolence only against him…
28. Gobryas says that he has done this to others…
29. The man would be willing to join them but it would require them to march to Babylon…
30. He says that it would be difficult to take Babylon…
31. Cyrus thinks that a march on Babylon would be the safest course for them…
32. He thinks that the longer they delay the more they will give the enemy cause for courage…
33. Further, Gobryas’ men, when inspired are irresistible, but when frightened are seized with panic…
34. Cyrus explains that fear among larger armies is contagious and hard to control with speech…
35. Victory, he contends, depends on the fighting spirit of the army not on the size…
36. The enemy, moreover, is smaller than before and they are larger…
37. It would be better to attack the enemy than wait for

**Chapter 5.3: Cyrus allies himself with the Assyrian eunuch, Gadatas, they take an important fortress in Babylon, and they then set out to help Gadatas defend his lands against the Assyrian king.

1. They march to the boundaries of Gobryas’ territory…
2. Cyrus proposes to give the spoils to Gobryas out of gratitude for his hospitality…
3. The Persians approve…
4. Cyrus instructs them to give the magi what belongs to the gods and turn the rest over to Gobryas…
5. They march on Babylon, but the king will not fight…
6. Gobryas delivers the message and the king replies that he regrets not killing Gobryas too…
7. Gobryas wishes always to be a thorn in the king’s side…
8. Cyrus confirms from Gobryas that the eunuch will be on their side…
9. Cyrus instructs Gobryas to make friends with the eunuch and keep it a secret…
10. Gobryas asserts that the eunuch (Gadatas) would pay for the opportunity to harm the king…
11. Cyrus asks whether the eunuch could be admitted to the fort designed to protect against invasion between Sacians and Hyrcanians…
12. Cyrus proposes that he attack this fort and allow the eunuch to show his loyalty to the king by defending it…
13. G. thinks this plan will work…
14. Cyrus instructs Gobryas to go make this alliance with the eunuch and put the plan into action…
15. Gobryas makes the alliance with the eager Gadatas…
16. Gadatas pretends to be an ally to the Assyrian king…
τῶν δὲ ἀγγέλων οὓς ἔπεμψεν ὁ Κῦρος προειπὼν ᾗ πορεύσοιντο, ὅπως ἄγοιεν τὰ στρατεύματα 17. He wins the king’s trust and gets control of the major stronghold…
18. Afterwards the eunuch goes to greet Cyrus, bowing to him according to custom…
19. Cyrus assures Gadatas that though he cannot make children, he can make friends…
20. The Hyrcanian king appears to express his gratitude to Cyrus for his friendship…
21. Cyrus hands over the fortress to the king…
22. The king asks for Cyrus’ guidance on how to make the best use of the fortress…
23. Cyrus agrees and the three nations agree to use the fortress in common…
24. Because of this gesture, many Sacians and Cadusians join the army…
25. Many Assyrians fearing their hostile neighbors surrender themselves to Cyrus…
26. Gadatas learns that the Assyrian king is angry…
27. Gadatas expects to find the king in his land before he can return to it…
28. Cyrus gives Gadatas leave and vows to join him with his larger army as soon as he can…
29. Gadatas departs and Cyrus summons the officers of the allies…
30. Cyrus explains that Gadatas is being attacked by the king…
31. Cyrus says that it would both be noble and just to show gratitude to Gadatas…
32. He explains that they have the opportunity to show everyone that they surpass their enemies…
33. He argues further that to abandon Gadatas would be a disgrace…
34. Everyone heartily approves of Cyrus’ proposal…
35. Cyrus proposes that the other officers proceed on horse with three days’ provisions…
36. He has Chrysantas lead the men in breastplates…
37. They are the slowest and will ensure that the army stays together, even at night…
38. He sets Artabazus at the head of the Persian targeteers and bowmen…
39. They will take the lead with captains in the front, targeteers on the right and archers on the left…
40. After these he places the camp-followers…
41. He has Madatas bring up the Persian cavalry…
42. Then Rhambacas the Mede with the Medan cavalry, and Tigranes with his; Alceunas (the Cadusian) brings up the rear cavalry…
43. He instructs them to march in silence, especially at night, and to use their ears…
44. He instructs them to have short and frequent night watches so that no one falls asleep…
45. He instructs them then to prepare to set out…
46. As they depart they remark on what a good memory Cyrus has…
47. Xenophon says that Cyrus learned everyone’s name with care because he thought of his men as tools…
48. He also thought that those who were known by their general were more ready to exert themselves…
49. He thought it was foolish to give instructions in vague terms, like “someone do this”…
50. For he thought that no one would know what to do and all would share the blame…
51. The soldiers prepare for departure and go to bed…
52. The march begins at midnight with Chrysantas at the head…
53. Cyrus instructs him to advance leisurely and waits by the roadside until all have joined…
54. When they all join, Cyrus tells Chrysantas to double the pace…
55. Cyrus inspects the ranks along the march…
56. Cyrus also sends a body of light infantrymen as scouts ahead of Chrysantas…
57. They march all night; in the day Cyrus arranges the army so as to face the enemy head-on…
58. Cyrus always keeps the main line intact…
59. Cyrus leads the army but also moves about among it to see what is necessary…

**Chapter 5.4: Cyrus rescues Gadatas from a treacherous plot, avenges the reckless Cadusians, and prepares to make war on Babylon.

1. A traitor in Gadatas’ army plots to kill him and claim his lands from the Assyrian king…
2. He reports that Gadatas is marching without Cyrus, surrenders the fortress, and promises to slay Gadatas…
3. The messenger reaches the king and the king takes possession of the fortress and the cavalry with it…
4. G. is lured into an ambush by some horsemen and chariots who appear to be in flight…
5. G. flees the ambush but is struck by the traitor, who then joins the king in the pursuit of Gadatas’ army…
6. Gadatas’ fleeing army reaches Cyrus’ army at just the right time…
7. Cyrus is at first surprised by what is going on, but then grasps the situation and leads his army against the enemy…
8. Some chariots are captured as they try to flee; many are slain including the traitor who had wounded Gadatas…
9. Some of the Assyrian infantry flee to the fortress that had been taken by betrayal, others to a city occupied by the Assyrian king…
10. Cyrus returns to Gadatas’ country…
11. Gadatas explains that he himself was coming to see Cyrus…
12. He explains that even if he had the capacity to have children, he would not have expected to have had a child so kind…
13. Cyrus says that there is an even greater wonder than his own service and that is the service of so many other nations…
14. Gadatas prays that the gods give blessings to all these nations and he himself offers great gifts of hospitality to them…
15. The Cadusian prince, wishing to do something remarkable, rushes into battle without consulting Cyrus…
16. The Assyrians recognize that the Cadusians are alone, engage in battle, and slay their prince…
17. Cyrus goes out to meet the survivors and sends any of those wounded to Gadatas to receive attention…
18. Cyrus continues to be concerned for their condition such that when dinner comes he and his surgeons do not go…
19. Cyrus calls an assembly of all the Cadusians and the officers…
20. If they must detach from one another there must be communication…
21. Cyrus orders them to march out to the field of battle to reclaim their dead and do battle with the enemy…
22. He instructs the Cadusians to elect a new general according to their custom…
23. They set out and bury the dead Cadusians and ravage the country…
24. Cyrus asks the Assyrian king to allow the men who had defected to him to continue on as farmers unharmed…
25. He vows vengeance if the king takes up arms against any of these people…
26. The Assyrians do everything they can to persuade their king to honor Cyrus’ request…
27. The king agrees that the farmers will have peace but men under arms will be treated as enemies…
28. Cyrus continues to prey upon enemy livestock so as to fund his war at the enemy’s expense…
29. Gadatas presents Cyrus with many gifts and especially the horses of his men that he had come to distrust…
30. He offers Cyrus to make use of all that he owns since he himself will never have children…
31. He proclaims that it was for no wrong act that he suffered this fate and then bursts into tears…
32. Cyrus pities Gadatas’ suffering…
33. Gadatas affirms his trust to Cyrus but he feels that he may not be able to keep his possessions safe…
34. He thinks that now that he has made an enemy of the king he will be open to endless plotting…
35. Gadatas explains that he might have been more prudent in planning his revenge but he could not stop thinking about it…
36. G. predicts that the king will always seek to destroy those better than himself…
37. Cyrus proposes that they prepare fortifications and then that he and Gadatas take the field against the king…
38. Gadatas agrees to this proposal and says that he would like to take his mother with him on the campaign…
39. Gadatas strengthens his forts and raises an army both of friends and dubious friends…
40. Cyrus keeps Gadatas with him as a trusted advisor…
41. As they approach Babylon, Cyrus asks Gadatas and Gobryas if there is another road so that they need not march right by the wall…
42. Gobryas explains that there are other walls but he had supposed that Cyrus would want to display the size of his army…
κ 43. Cyrus remarks on Gobryas’ surprise that he should not wish to march up by the walls with a large army…
44. Cyrus explains that marching ‘up to’ and ‘by’ are not the same things…
45. Since the army is larger now, he does not want to reveal the baggage trains to be unprotected…
46. He says that it is better to draw the army out in a thin, weak line, so that a compacted enemy may face a greater force…
47. Cyrus further explains his strategy…
48. Cyrus explains that if they march at a distance from the walls the enemy will have a full view of the numbers…
49. Cyrus further explains his strategy…
50. They agree to the strategy and Gobryas leads the way as directed…
51. Cyrus proceeds to the boundaries of Media and Syria where he takes three forts…

**Chapter 5.5: Cyrus’ vast alliance shames Cyaxares, but he wins him over by demonstrating his good will.

1. Cyrus requests that Cyaxares come to his camp to strategize on the attack of the Assyrians…
2. He prepares the captured tent of the Assyrians’ king for Cyaxares…
3. Cyaxares decides that it is better for the army to stay at the frontier…
4. Cyaxares thinks it best to keep these men from being a drain on the Medan land and instructs the army to be sent to Cyrus…
5. Cyrus goes out to meet Cyaxares in the company of his large cavalry of Medes, Armenians, Hyrcanians and all the rest…
6. When Cyaxares sees this large cavalry in comparison to his meager force he feels that it is dishonorable…
7. Cyrus dismisses everyone else and asks Cyaxares to join him under some palm trees off the road on some Medan rugs…
8. Cyrus asks him to explain his feelings…
9. Cyaxares says further that this is more humiliating than if from an enemy…
10. Cyaxares’ weeping also causes Cyrus to weep…
11. He says that he is not surprised that Cyaxares becomes angry and threatens them…
12. Cyrus regrets that his devotion to Cyaxares has turned out to grieve him…
13. Cyrus proposes that they discuss whether he has harmed, or even intended to harm, Cyaxares…
14. He asks for praise, rather than blame, if he can show that he has actually benefited Cyaxares…
15. He begins to enumerate all his acts and they engage in seemingly Socratic’ dialogue…
16. He begins from the time that he assumed command at Cyaxares’ request…
17. Cyrus asks if this was a benefit or a harm, to which C. admits that it was a benefit…
18. Cyrus points out that in battle he never shirked toil or danger and Cyaxares agrees…
19. Cyrus points out further that he wanted to pursue the enemy after the first victory and asks if this was for his own gain…
20. Cyrus asks if he was wrong in going by himself and excusing C. from joining the pursuit…
21. He asks if there was anything wrong in asking the Medes to join him, if they wished to…
22. Cyrus explains that he asked the Medes to join him willingly…
23. Cyrus enumerates all that they accomplished against the enemy…
24. He notes that Cyaxares’ territory is increasing; he asks Cyaxares how he can judge any of this bad…
25. Cyaxares explains that the more successful Cyrus is the more of a burden it is to him…
26. He wishes he could do more good things for Cyrus because it brings him disgrace to be so benefitted by him…
27. He feels that he has been made poorer by Cyrus’ gifts of money because he cannot do the same for Cyrus…
28. Cyaxares asks Cyrus how it would make him feel if someone should pet his dogs and make them more familiar than to himself…
29. Cyaxares gives the additional example of someone who won the affections of his bodyguard…
30. Cyaxares gives the additional example of a man who courts another man’s wife and makes her love him more than the husband…
31. He also asks Cyrus how he would feel if someone rendered the Persians more loyal to himself than to Cyrus…
32. He asks how Cyrus would feel if someone made off with his most prized possessions…
33. Cyaxares affirms that Cyrus has done exactly what he has claimed but it has left Cyaxares with no role in his own good fortune…
34. He says that it would be better for Cyrus to make sure that he maintains his reputation and his honor…
35. Cyrus asks Cyaxares to wait until he has proof that Cyrus is favorable toward him…
36. Cyaxares relents and Cyrus asks if he can kiss him, and he allows it…
37. The Medes and Persians are glad to see them united; they mount their horses and the Medes follow Cyaxares at Cyrus’ instruction…
38. They put Cyaxares in his tent and he receives the supplies he needs…
39. Cyaxares receives visits from the Medes…
40. Cyaxares comes to believe that the Medes still felt affection for him and were no less attentive…
41. Cyaxares invites Cyrus to dinner but he declines for fear that he will appear neglectful of his men…
42. He suggests that Cyaxares go to dinner himself and continue to win the affections of anyone who comes to see him…
43. He vows to come see him in the morning to discuss the question of whether to continue the campaign or disband the armies…
45. He expresses the wish that the allies they have acquired would continue on with them…
46. He says that just as valor is proven by the size of a conquest, so is efficiency and eloquence the persuasion of others to join…
47. He encourages them not to rehearse their arguments before him but to set out and persuade as many as possible…
48. Cyrus vows to secure the necessities for the campaign…

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