Book 6 (Cyrus)

Chapter 6.1: Cyrus convinces the armies not to disband; he prepares to occupy some Assyrian garrisons for the winter, sends Araspas on a spy-mission, and reunites Pantheia with Abradatas.

1.  Various friends of Cyrus present the different nations to appeal to Cyrus to remain…
2. Cyrus teases Gadatas for being goaded on by Hystaspas to ask him to stay…
3. Gadatas insists that he instigated the appeal himself…
4. Hystaspas explains that he told Gadatas that Cyrus could not remain behind because his own father was sending for him…
5. Hystaspas says that he knows how eager Cyrus is to be admired…
6. Cyaxares appears in majestic style and, asserting his right as elder, begins the council…
7. The Hyrcanian king votes to continue the expedition…
8. The Cadusian leader gives themselves as examples of what happens when armies fight alone…
9. Artabazas asserts that they are more at war when disbanded than when together…:
10. Their current life is a feast because they occupy the Assyrian forts and enjoy their spoils…
11. Gobryas praises Cyrus’ faith, but insists that with Cyrus gone he will have to pay for his disloyalty to the Assyrian king…
12. Cyrus shares the concern that if they disband the enemy will regroup…
13. He says that they will be no match for their current foes if they campaign as they have been…
14. He notes that winter approaches which will threaten their horses and the rank and file of the army…
15. He proposes that they acquire and fortify as many enemy strongholds as possible…
16. Unlike sailors who abandon the waters they sail over this will allow them to occupy the country…
17. He invites the locals to do garrison duty on fortresses closest to their borders…
18. This arrangement should keep the locals in the greatest degree of peace and safety…
19. Everyone, including Cyaxares, unanimously approves of Cyrus’ proposal…
20. Cyrus notes that everyone is ready to do as he requests…
21. Cyaxares and the other leaders promise to build siege engines at their own expense; Cyrus vows to furnish two…
22. They set to work on this and put the most competent men in charge….
23. Cyrus, realizing that the plan will take a long time to implement, camps in the most healthful place…
24. He makes constant inquiry about the nature of the land and where to get supplies…
25. Cyrus receives a report that the Assyrian king is fleeing to Lydia with his treasure…
26. The common soldiers take this as a sign of fear but Cyrus imagines it may be an effort to regroup…
27. He makes his own corps of chariots and abolishes the old Trojan method of charioteering…
28. Cyrus reckons that this mode of charioteering is inefficient, as it requires drivers and four horses for every chariot…
29. He implements broader, sturdier chariots instead…
30. He attaches steel scythes to the axles, with scythes pointing downward beneath the axles…
31. Cyrus resolves to send Araspas as a spy to the Lydians, using as a pretext the fact that Araspas had fallen in love with Panthea…
32. Panthea had refused his advances but not reported them to Cyrus…
33. She eventually does tell Cyrus when Araspas threatens force…
34. Cyrus laughs at Araspas when he hears the story because Araspas had been so insistent that he would not fall in love. He sends Artabazus with the eunuch to warn Araspas not to lay hands on Panthea but says that he would not object if he wins her consent (note again Cyrus’ interest in willing obedience).
35. Artabazas chides Araspas to the point of tears and the fear that Cyrus will punish him.
36. Cyrus forgives Araspas, acknowledging that even the gods are vulnerable to love…
37. Araspas is relieved that Cyrus is so gentle and forgiving, whereas others make fun of him or avoid him…
38. Araspas is eager to do a favor for Cyrus and their allies…
39. Cyrus asks him to accept the pretense that he is fleeing to the enemy out of fear of punishment…
40. Araspas agrees to go on a spy mission to infiltrate the enemy’s counsels…
41. He will be able to give up Pantheia because, having two souls, his good soul has prevailed…
42. Cyrus instructs Araspas to gain the Assyrians’ trust by telling them about his army…
43. He instructs him further to wait with them as long as possible so that he will have information on their most recent plans…
44. Araspas departs with some trusted comrades…
45. Pantheia tells Cyrus not to worry about the departure of Araspas and offers to contact her husband to become his ally…
46. Cyrus sends a message to Abradatas and he eagerly comes to join the camp…
47. Husband and wife embrace with joy…
48. Abradatas pledges his friendship, service, and allegiance, to Cyrus with his right hand…
49. Cyrus leaves him to have dinner with his wife and invites him to dinner at another time…
50. Abradatas pledges 100 of his own chariots and prepares to lead them…
51. He equips his own chariot with four poles…
52. Cyrus gets the idea to use eight poles, with eight oxen, to move one of his towers…
53. The towers are constructed to be a help to the phalanx; on each tower he stations twenty men…
54. The towers pass the test…
55. Cyrus plans to take them into war…

Chapter 6.2: When Cyrus and the army learn of the magnitude of the Assyrian campaign, Cyrus raises everyone’s spirits by reminding them of their preparation and past successes and then gives them specific instructions.

1. Cyrus receives word that the Indian king wishes to be his friend…
2. Cyrus asks three of the Indians to go to the Assyrian king…
3. The Indians are delighted to carry out Cyrus’ request…
4. Cyrus continues a magnificent preparation for war…
5. Cyrus takes them hunting and rewards them for their skills….
6. For all the celebrations and festivals he institutes contests with splendid prizes…
7. Cyrus now has almost everything he needs except the engines of war…
8. His resources, especially the chariots, are enumerated…
9. The Indian spies return…
10. They enumerate the nations that have united with the Assyrians…
11. The Indians explain the Assyrian strategy…
12. Cyrus’ army is naturally disheartened by this news…
13. Cyrus summons everyone to an assembly…
14. Cyrus acknowledges their fear at the news of the enemy’s plan…
15. He invites them to imagine how the Assyrians must feel…
16. They also have the same armor as the Assyrians once had and now have cavalry and heavy lances…
17. They also have much better chariots than before…
18. They also have camels and towers…
19. He explains that Croesus is a poor and cowardly commander…
20. Hiring mercenaries means they need people to fight more bravely than they themselves are willing to…
21. Chrysantas rises to speak after Cyrus…
22. He says that the disappointment has passed…
23. Cyrus proposes that they march as soon as possible…
24. Cyrus says that this is his proposal but invites anyone else to propose an alternative…
25. He advises them to take provisions for a 15-day journey…
26. He tells them to take enough wine until they can accustom themselves to water…
27. He instructs them to begin drinking water with meals so as to prepare themselves…
28. Since everything they eat has water in it, they should take only a little wine after the meal…
29. They must diminish their intake gradually, even after dinner, until they become teetotalers…
30. He tells them to substitute provisions for heavy blankets…
31. They must take only sharp, pungent, and salty meats…
32. They must take provisions for caring for the sick as they are light and necessary…
33. He who whets his spear whets his courage…
34. They need tools especially for the wagons and pack-animals…
35. He instructs the officers to attend to the soldiers’ rations…
36. The engineers must oversee the building of roads…
37. He also says that he will be taking along smiths, carpenters, and cobblers…
38. He invites merchants to travel with them…
39. He will give advances to any merchants who pledge that they are accompanying the march…
40. He instructs everyone to make ready while he will take the omens until they are favorable…
41. He instructs the officers to report to him once their divisions are ready…

Chapter 6.3: Cyrus gathers information from the enemy, through prisoners and Araspas, and then instructs the men to take their positions for battle.

1. They carry out Cyrus’ instructions and he sets out with the army once the omens are favorable…
2. Cyaxares remains behind with a third of the Medes to guard against invasion…
3. On narrow roads the soldiers put the baggage train in between them…
4. They are all very careful to maintain their baggage and to keep an eye on one another…
5. The scouts recognize signs of the enemy nearby…
6. They report to Cyrus who asks for regular updates…
7. Cyrus gives the word to take lunch and remain at their posts awaiting orders…
8. After they have eaten Cyrus summons everyone together…
9. Cyrus interrogates some prisoners who have been captured…
10. He learns through inquiry that the enemy fears the approach of Cyrus’ army…
11. He learns also that Croesus is marshalling the army with a Greek and a Medan deserter…
12. Messengers report to Cyrus that an enemy cavalry is approaching…
13. Cyrus sends some cavalry from his bodyguard and Hystaspas to meet the enemy…
14. he cavalry depart while Hystaspas dons his armor…
15. Cyrus welcomes him cordially while others are astonished…
16. Cyrus says that he has not forgotten what he promised Araspas and calls on everyone to honor him…
17. Everyone embraces Araspas and welcomes him…
18. Araspas knows both the size and arrangement of the enemy army, as well as their battle plan…
19. With the exception of the Egyptians they are 30 deep and 40 stadia wide…
20. The Egyptians are drawn up in lines of 10K men 100-square…
21. Cyrus gives the men instructions on preparation for the battle on the following day…
22. Cyrus explains that the enemy’s deep phalanx will be too deep to reach them…
23. He says that he prefers the enemy to have a deeper phalanx…
24. He will bring up the spearmen behind the heavily-armed troops followed immediately by the bowmen…
25. He will station the rearguard behind all the rest, those of veteran reserves…
26. He concludes by instructing them all to take their positions…
27. He instructs the commanders to tell everyone to watch out for each other…
28. He instructs Euphratas to have the towers follow as closely behind the phalanx as possible…
29. He tells Dauchus to bring up his division (the baggage train) after the towers…
30. He instructs Carduchus to bring the carriages of women up behind the baggage-train…
31. He tells Artaozus and Artagerses to keep a regiment of infantry behind the carriages…
32. He tells Pharnuchus and Asiadatas to keep their cavalry out of the main line…
33. He tells the camel commanders to position themselves behind the women’s carriages…
34. He then instructs the chariot drivers to draw lots and take positions in the front, left or right…
35. Abradatas the king of Susa volunteers to hold the post immediately in front of the enemy phalanx…
36. Cyrus asks for the Persians’ consent and they say that it is unfair, so Cyrus has them cast lots…
37. They all disband and make preparations before dinner…

Chapter 6.4: Pantheia and Abradatas have an illustrious and tearful parting, then Cyrus exhorts everyone to battle.

1. Cyrus sacrifices early on the following day while the army arrays for battle in beautiful attire…
2. Abradatas’ chariot is most handsome; Pantheia helps to adorn him in the finest armor…
3. He asks if she broke her finest jewels to make his clothes and she says that he is her finest jewel…
4. In his armor, Abradatas appears most handsome and noble, being favored by nature…
5. Pantheia asks for a moment alone with him…
6. She declares that she would rather die with him than live disgraced with someone disgraced…
7. They owe Cyrus a large debt of gratitude for not treating her as a slave…
8. She also acknowledges how Cyrus had allowed her to send for Abradatas…
9. Abradatas prays that he may show himself a worthy husband to Pantheia and a worthy friend to Cyrus…
10. Pantheia kisses his chariot and follows until Abradatas tells her to turn back…
11. No one has eyes for Abradatas, beautiful as he is, until Pantheia is gone.
12. Cyrus sacrifices until he receives favorable omens, then summons the army together…
13. He explains that the omens are the same as in their previous victory…
14. He explains that they are better trained than the enemy, and for much longer…
15. Their trust is an asset while the enemy’s mistrust of one another a liability…
16. He exhorts them to go into battle armed with this trust, against an enemy with no such armor…
17. He explains the enemy’s weaknesses, large shields, and an army drawn too deeply….
18. The enemy will be at a loss whether it rushes into battle or tries to hold its ground…
19. Cyrus once again asks for any further guidance from the army…
20. He encourages each of them to demonstrate to one another that he is worthy of command…

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