Book 8 (Cyrus)

Chapter 8.1: Cyrus trains his people by example.
1. After Cyrus, Chrysantas rises to speak and compares the good ruler to the good father…
2. He makes a case for obedience in the city on several levels…
3. All of their goods, he contends, have been won by obedience…
4. Whereas before they were only under a commander, now they have their own subjects…
5. He enjoins them to do as Cyrus bids…
6. They all agree to do as Chrysantas recommends…
7. Succeeding kings have preserved Cyrus’ institutions…
8. The quality of the institution is proportionate to the character of the person in charge…
9. Cyrus appoints officers over various departments…
10. He does not defer to others the care of picking his ablest associates…
11. He sees the need for these men to be generals, satraps, and emissaries…
12. He thought that it was most crucial to have his men in the top positions be the best possible…
13. Cyrus accordingly decides that he will need leisure time…
14. Pondering how to organize his government, Cyrus lights upon the idea of military hierarchy…
15. Cyrus applies this model to his government, leaving no part of the administration uncared for…
16. Cyrus makes sure that his associates (koinones) are how he needs them to be…
17. First he had one of his best friends seize the property of a person that did not show up at court…
18. Cyrus would then delay a long time before giving a hearing to accustom them to come to court…
19. Two other methods he had for conditioning others to attend court…
20. His surest method of ensuring attendance at court was to confiscate the property…
21. At court, Cyrus strives to set the example of beautiful and noble behavior in himself…
22. The good ruler is better than even the written law because he was like a “law with eyes”…
23. His first step was to show his devotion to the gods and institute the college of the magi…
24. Persian kings (Cyrus not king yet) follow this practice in X.’s time…
25. Cyrus believed that his friends’ piety was good for him…
26. He inculcates justice by making it clear that he was wronging none of his friends…
27. He thinks to inspire a sense of shame in others by refusing himself to say or do anything shameful…
28. He does this on the assumption that people show reverence/shame for those who also show it…
29. He inculcates obedience by honoring the obedient…
30. He makes his self-control an example to others…
31. Bracketed Paragraph on the difference between self-control and shame…
32. He inculcates temperance by not being carried away from the pursuit of the good by any pleasures…
33. Cyrus thus set up correctness of conduct and reverence and politeness…
34. To train his men in the arts of war, Cyrus takes them hunting on horseback…
35. This is the best training for them for war…
36. This also accustomed them to self-mastery and endurance of hardship…
37. Cyrus did not think anyone had a right to rule who was not better than his subjects…
38. Cyrus used to go on hunts himself or, failing that, to hunt animals in his own park…
39. As a result of this care, he and those about him excelled in all the noble deeds…
40. Not only should a ruler actually be better than his subjects but also cast a spell over them…
41. The soles of the shoes have inserts to make one taller…
42. He trained his men not to spit, wipe their nose, or turn around in public…
43. Cyrus did not encourage servants to practice any of the exercises of the free…
44. He allowed them to take food on the hunt…
45. Cyrus was confident in his own safety…
46. Some he did consider powerful and ambitious enough to overthrow him…
47. He rejects the idea of taking away their weapons of war…
48. He pursues instead the course that is most honorable and conducive to his own personal security…

Chapter 8.2: The many facets of Cyrus’ philanthropia.

1. Cyrus’ first approach was to show as much philanthropia as he could, all the time…
2. Before he was able to do favors for others with gifts of money and after…
3. He has food served identical to what he regularly eats…
4. He has all of his servants’ food served from his own table to engender good will…
5. The reason for this excellence is that cooking was perfected, like all other arts, in large cities…
6. The same is true for cooking meats, etc…
7. Though he was rich, Cyrus also excelled others in the quantity of presents he gave…
8. Some of the gifts he gives are robes, bracelet, necklaces, horses with gold-studded bridles…
9. Thereby the Persian king can make himself preferred above even brothers, parents, and children…
10. Cyrus acquired the king’s “eyes” and “ears” by giving gifts and honors…
11. He did not appoint people for this, but rewarded anyone who shared something worthy of attention…
12. People are afraid to say anything to the discredit of the king, lest it be reported back to him…
13. Cyrus not only surpassed others in munificence, but also in attention and considerateness…
14. Cyrus thought that the duties of a good shepherd and a good king were very similar…
15. Cyrus proves the soundness of this approach by an illustration to Croesus…
16. He sends Hystaspas to each of his friends asking how much they would give him…
17. Hystaspas returns with a great number of presents…
18. Croesus discovers that there are many times over the amount he thought Cyrus would have on his own…
19. Cyrus explains that by making his friends rich he will have treasures in them…
20. Cyrus confesses that even he cannot eradicate from himself the passion for wealth…
21. Cyrus explains how others with this affliction store up so much of their wealth…
22. Cyrus instead, when he has more than enough for his needs, looks to satisfy the wants of his friends…
23. Cyrus explains to Croesus that the happiest man is not the one with the most…
24. Cyrus prepares not only for a long life of health, but also for the possibility of sickness…
25. Whenever anyone is sick he would visit him and provide what is needed…
26. Cyrus contrived all of this in order to be first in the affections of those whose love he wanted…
27. For settling disputes Cyrus has both parties agree on who their judges will be…
28. Everyone competed so to win Cyrus’ affections that they did not band together in mutual interest…

Chapter 8.3: Cyrus processes in state and matches Pheraulas with a Sacian, to the delight of both, one helping his friends, the other managing the wealth.

1. Cyrus for the first time processes in state with magnificence from his palace…
2. He summons his friends to court before sunrise…
3. He gives his friends an assortment of Medan robes for them to adorn their friends…
4. One friends asks when Cyrus will adorn himself…
5. Cyrus’ regard for Pheraulas, the man of the people…
6. They arrive at a plan after careful consideration…
7. The officers remark on how Pheraulas must be a great man to be put in such command…
8. This deflects the officer from his jealousy…
9. At dawn all the soldiers line the streets to make way for Cyrus’ procession…
10. The cavalry have their hands tucked inside their sleeves as a token of loyalty…
11. From the gates sacrificial animals are led out, according to the guidance of the magi…
12. Other animals and chariots are led out for various divinities…
13. Cyrus then appears wearing a tiara, a purple and white tunic, scarlet tunic, and purple mantle…
14. He had his hands outside his sleeves…
15. Cyrus is then led by many lancers and mace-bearers…
16. Next came his private horses, spearmen, and cavalry, with Chrysantas among them…
17. Then come the horsemen with Hystaspas in command…
18. Then come the cavalry of the Medes, Armenians, Hyrcanians, Cadusians, and Sacians…
19. Cyrus is surrounded by petitioners as he processes…
20. Cyrus would occasionally single out officers…
21. The men would regularly ride up to Cyrus to answer the summons…
22. Cyrus noticed this and sent a private message…
23. Cyrus does reward one man with a horse…
24. At the sanctuary they sacrifice to Zeus, the Sun, the Earth, and the guardian heroes of Syria…
25. Cyrus sets up a goal, five stadia away, for a horse race among the different nations…
26. Cyrus offers him a kingdom for his horse…
27. Cyrus offers to show him how he could not fail to hit a good man with his eyes closed…
28. Cyrus points to his friends; the man hits Pheraulas as he rides by…
29. The Sacian asks whom he hit and Cyrus explains…
30. The Sacian goes to look for Pheraulas, finding him covered with dirt and blood…
31. The Sacian then offers him his horse, explaining that he has hit a good man…
32. Pheraulas hopes that the Sacian will not regret his gift…
33. Cyrus has the chariots race, with prizes of cups and cattle…
34. The form of this procession continues to Xenophon’s time…
35. Pheraulas entertains the Sacian and they drink to Cyrus’ health with the cups won…
36. The Sacian inquires about Pheraulas’ wealth back in Persia…
37. P. explains that he had previously earned his living by his hands…
38. Pheraulas praises the generosity of the land…
39. The Sacian imagines that Pheraulas must be very happy…
40. Pheraulas complains that he doesn’t enjoy food, drink, or sleep any more…
41. Now he must look after many servants and attend to the problems of those who come to him…
42. The Sacian imagines that when things are going well for Pheraulas he is many times happier…
43. The Sacian response…
44. Pheraulas explains that possessing is not the same as acquiring…
45. The Sacian asserts that he likes both to have much and to spend much…
46. Pheraulas in turn surrenders to him all his possessions…
47. Pheraulas assures him under oath that he is serious…
48. Both men come to an agreement thinking that they are the happiest…
49. Pheraulas had a loving way and nothing seemed as pleasant or as profitable as to tend to people…
50. Pheraulas is thus delighted by the opportunity to devote himself to his friends…

Chapter 8.4: At a banquet Cyrus plays the wit and matchmaker and then explains his views on sharing wealth with friends.

1. Cyrus invites those most willing to expand his empire and honor him with good will to a banquet…
2. Gadatas is Cyrus’ chief scepter-bearer and household manager…
3. Cyrus assigns seats to friends according to his regard for them…
4. Cyrus does this because he hopes to inspire competition…
5. Cyrus recognizes his esteem of his comrades by their assignments in standing or sitting with him…
6. Gobryas marvels not at the lavishness of Cyrus’ table but that he asks his friends to share in it…
7. Gobryas declares Cyrus not only the greatest general but even more excellent in his philanthropia…
8. Cyrus insists that the deeds of philanthropia are more pleasurable than deeds of strategia…
9. While they are drinking during the meal Hystaspas asks if he has ever failed Cyrus in any way…
10. He then asks why Chrysantas was assigned a more honorable place than him…
11. Cyrus explains that Chrysantas would come even without being sent for…
12. Hystaspas vows to emulate Chrysantas, but asks how to rejoice at his good fortune…
13. Cyrus asks Gobryas if he is willing to marry one of his daughters to one of Cyrus’ friends…
14. He explains that he has seen Cyrus’ friends bear toil and danger with good spirit…
15. Hystaspas explains that he would eagerly pursue Gobryas’ daughter…
16. Gobryas vows that he does have more sentiments and that he will instead give his goblets…
17. Cyrus offers to assist others in their hopes of marriage…
18. Gobryas asks to whom he should apply if he has an available daughter…
19. He explains that he knows what kind of bride would suit each of his friends…
20. Cyrus says small (since Chrysantas is small), otherwise he would have to jump to get a kiss…
21. He also needs a snub-nosed woman because it would complement Chrysantas’ hooked nose…
22. Chrysantas then asks what kind of wife would suit a frigid king…
23. Hystaspas says that he is envious of Cyrus for being ‘frigid’ and yet able to make everyone laugh…
24. Afterwards he gives some jewelry to Tigranes’ wife in exchange for following them on the campaign…
25. He offers up Hystaspas when Hystaspas explains that Cyrus is the source of all his wealth…
26. Cyrus clasps the right hands of Gobryas and Hystaspas and gives Hystaspas many gifts…
27. Artabazus complains that he did not get a kiss…
28. They depart on the following day, though some remain behind and continue to live near the palace…
29. He divides the spoils from Sardis among his own soldiers…
30. They do so, on down the line…
31. One person speculates that Cyrus must keep a lot for himself if he is giving out so much…
32. Cyrus, in an assembly of friends, proclaims that it is better to share than to hold wealth…
33. He says that it is also mean to conceal how much wealth he has…
34. He says the best course is to show himself a gentleman by revealing how much wealth he has…
35. He does so…
36. He explains that his wealth is as much theirs as it is his…

Chapter 8.5: Cyrus visits Media and Persia, where he marries Cyaxares’ daughter and makes a covenant with the Persians.

1. Cyrus departs Babylon for Persia with his affairs in order…
2. Xenophon will explain how orderly Cyrus departed and how the great king travels…
3. Everyone is assigned a place in camp, with his tent facing east…
4. When it comes time to pack up the camp, everyone does his business at once…
5. They unpack in the same way, which saves time…
6. Both the servants and the soldiers also know their places in the camp…
7. Cyrus considers order to be necessary in a household, too, but even better in an army…
8. Cyrus takes up the central position in camp, as the most secure, surrounded by his trusty followers…
9. He thinks to secure the troops too…
10. Then are the cavalry and targeteers, then the bowmen…
11. Then the hoplites…
12. He has the bowmen and peltasts sleep with their weapons to be prepared for battle…
13. All officers have banners over their tents so that their residences will be known…
14. This arrangement made it much easier to see where order was being maintained and where not…
15. Xenophon explains that Cyrus had several notions of what good tactics consisted of…
16. On the march Cyrus always adapted his order to the existing circumstances…
17. On his way to Persia, Cyrus meets up with Cyaxares…
18. Cyaxares accepts them and introduces him to his daughter…
19. Cyaxares also gives Cyrus his daughter in marriage…
20. Cyrus communicates his gratitude and will accept his offer with the approval of his parents…
21. Cyrus arrives in Persia, leaving his main army at the boundaries…
22. Cambyses calls an assembly and proclaims his good will toward the Persians…
23. He recounts the glory that Persia has won by placing Cyrus at the head of its army…
24. Cambyses cautions Cyrus against trying to rule the Persians with greed…
25. He calls them to a common sacrifice to ensure their mutual devotion…
26. He says that Cyrus will inherit his throne…
27. Both Cyrus and the Persian magistrates accept this proposal…
28. Cyrus leaves Persia and weds the daughter of Cyaxares…

Chapter 8.6: Cyrus institutes satrapies that will administer his empire and profits thereby.

1. Having returned to Babylon, Cyrus institutes satraps to govern the nations he has conquered…
2. He summons his chief officers in advance to explain the arrangement…
3. Cyrus makes a speech declaring his intentions to place satraps in the provinces…
4. The satraps will receive lands and residences in their provinces…
5. Cyrus carries out his intentions…
6. Cyrus explains that satraps will need to be mindful to send resources back to the king…
7. Cyrus then appoints the men eager to accept these terms and qualified to govern…
8. He sends no Persians to be satraps over Cilicia, Cyprus, or Paphlagonia…
9. Cyrus’ arrangement for the garrison commanders and satraps continues to Xenophon’s day…
10. Cyrus instructs the satraps to imitate him in everything they do…
11. Cyrus promises to honor those with the most chariots and horsemen in proportion to their power…
12. He tells them also to have parks with wild animals and not to eat before exercising…
13. Cyrus reminds them that they are not his slaves…
14. Bracketed sections: Cyrus’ institutions are maintained to Xenophon’s day…
15. After his instructions, Cyrus gave each satrap a force of soldiers…
16. Xenophon says that this regulation is still in force whether or not it was instituted by Cyrus…
17. Cyrus sets up a postal service with stations of horses for maintaining communication…
18. This is the fastest overland travel possible, with the horses even traveling at night…
19. After a year Cyrus gathers his army at Babylon…
20. He begins an expedition to subjugate all nations from Syria to the Indian Ocean, and then to Egypt…
21. The extremes of his empire were otherwise uninhabitable…
22. Cyrus lives in the center of his kingdom…
23. People were eager to send to Cyrus all that they had with the hope of additional prosperity…

Chapter 8.7: Cyrus senses that death is near; summoning his friends and sons, he advises the sons to be faithful to one another and he gives instructions on his burial.

1. In his old age (after the deaths of his parents) Cyrus returns to Persia for the 7th time…
2. In a dream, Cyrus sees a superhuman figure, which tells him to prepare to depart to the gods…
3. Cyrus makes sacrifice to Zeus, Helios, and other gods as thanks for guiding him to prosperity…
4. He begins to take things easy, not bathing but resting, not eating but drinking with pleasure…
5. Cyrus has the same experience several days in a row…
6. He announces that he is dying but insists that he is happy…
7. He has seen his friends prosperous and happy through his efforts and his enemies subjugated…
8. In his death he is leaving his sons to survive him and his friends and country happy…
9. Accordingly he thinks that he should justly be accounted blessed and enjoy an immortal fame…
10. Cyrus says that he, too, was trained to give precedence to his elders in all areas of life…
11. Cambyses is appointed king, while Tanaoxares gets the satrapy of Media, Armenia, and Cadusia…
12. Cyrus enumerates the many interruptions to happiness that Cambyses will face…
13. Cyrus tells Cambyses that faithful friends are his truest scepter…
14. Cyrus tells Cambyses to begin to establish fellow-guardians…
15. Cyrus is referring especially to the love between the two brothers…
16. Cyrus thus bids Tanaoxares to obey Cambyses and zealously support him…
17. Cyrus begs his sons, by the gods, to honor one another…
18. He speculates on the immortality of the soul…
19. He cannot convince himself that the soul is mortal…
20. He thinks that the soul liberated from the body is most likely to be most intelligent…
21. Death is like sleep, which also has some communion with the gods…
22. Because the soul is immortal, Cyrus asks his sons to heed his requests and reverence his soul…
23. He also exhorts them to respect the race of men, who will also note their achievements…
24. Cyrus encourages them to learn also from history if they cannot learn from him…
25. He instructs them not to house his body in gold or silver, but simply to put it in the earth…
26. Cyrus senses that death is near and invites his family to look on him one last time…
27. He instructs them to invite the Persians and all allies to his burial…
28. Finally, if they are good to their friends then they will be able to punish their enemies…

Chapter 8.8: The many forms of Persian decline after Cyrus.

1. Summary of Cyrus’ kingdom, governed by the will of Cyrus…
2. Yet when Cyrus dies his sons fall into dissension and nations revolt…
3. This obedience to oaths was the basis on which people trusted the Persians…
4. In the past people used to win favor with the king by risking their life for him…
5. In such a state of immorality all of those in Asia have turned to unholiness and injustice…
6. Persians are also dishonest about money by making people who have committed no crimes pay fines…
7. Because of their impiety and injustice, they are prone to invasion from anyone who chooses.
8. They also do not worry about their bodies…
9. They still eat only one meal, but this meal lasts all day long…
10. They still do not bring pots to their banquets, but drink so much that they have to be carried out…
11. They still do not eat, drink, or go to the bathroom on a march, but now their marches are short…
12. They do not go out hunting anymore since Artaxerxes and his court became drunkards…
13. Boys are still educated at court, but not in horsemanship or justice…
14. Whereas they used to learn about produce from the earth, now they just learn about poisons…
15. They are also more effeminate than in Cyrus’ day…
16. Now their couches are set upon carpets to provide further cushion…
17. They need very thick clothes in winter…
18. They are greedy to have as many cups as possible; they have a sordid love of gain…
19. They still travel on horseback but with many more coverings than before…
20. They make knights out of all sorts of people from bakers to the people that apply their make-up…
21. They are of no use in war…
22. They do not fight hand-to-hand anymore or even skirmish at a distance…
23. The infantry have the same armor as in the days of Cyrus but are unwilling to fight hand-to-hand…
24. They do not use chariots as Cyrus had, nor do they train them, nor do the officers know their names…
25. They will charge but in a haphazard and ineffective manner…
26. They don’t go to war without Greek mercenaries…
27. In conclusion, present day Persians are less reverent, less dutiful, less just, and less brave…

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s